Avoid creating unnecessary objects

  • Reuse immutable objects while you can.
String s = new String("fasdfasdf")

Don’t do this, it creates two strings each time it invokes. Instead, we should do…

String s = "fasdfasdf"
  • Prefer primitives to boxed primitives, and watch out for unintentional autoboxing.
// Slow program
public static void main(String[] args) {
  Long sum = 0L;
  for (long i = 0; i <= Integer.MAX_VALUE; i ++) {
    sum += i;

This snippet creates 2^31 unnecessary Long instances. “sum” should be primitive to prevent creating unnecessary objects.

Effective Java Item 6: Eliminate obsolete object references

I personally think this item is important to android development because many cases can lead to memory leak in android. For example, setting a OnClickListener can lead to memory leak and even more. Every thing that holds activity as reference should be checked really carefully.

  • Nulling out object references should be the exception rather than the norm, so we should scope the reference.
// Memoery leak example
public class LeakedListActivity extends ListActivity {
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {

    // Use an existing ListAdapter that will map an array
    // of strings to TextViews
    setListAdapter(new ArrayAdapter<String>(this,
            android.R.layout.simple_list_item_1, mStrings));
    getListView().setOnItemClickListener(new OnItemClickListener() {
        private final byte[] junk = new byte[10*1024*1024];
        public void onItemClick(AdapterView<?> arg0, View arg1, int arg2,
                long arg3) {
    private String[] mStrings = new String[] {"1", "2"};

This series of articles are notes when I am reading a book, called Effective Java (2nd version). If you are interested, you should definitely check it out.